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Default Re: Preparation for AIPMT Exam

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AIPMT Syllabus

UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement

• Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.

• Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass

and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

• Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

UNIT II: Kinematics

• Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion,

average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for

uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

• Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and

displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a

real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.

• Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components.

• Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile

motion. Uniform circular motion.

UNIT III: Laws of Motion

• Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion;

impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

• Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.

• Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road,

vehicle on banked road).

UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power

• Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.

• Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic

and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two


UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

• Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid

body; centre of mass of uniform rod.

• Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.

• Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational

motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement

of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

UNIT VI: Gravitation

• Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with

altitude and depth.

• Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary


UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

• Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity,

poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.

• Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s

theorem and its applications.

• Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops,

bubbles and capillary rise.

• Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific

heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.

• Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation,

Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.

• Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.

UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics

• Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy.

First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.

• Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.

UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory

• Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.

• Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of

equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path.

UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves

• Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic

motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic

and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped

oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

• Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave.

Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode

and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.


UNIT I: Electrostatics

• Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple

charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

• Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque

on a dipole in a uniform electric field.

• Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly

charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside)

• Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges:

equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an

electrostatic field.

• Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization,

capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor

with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.

UNIT II: Current Electricity

• Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric

current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical

resistivity and conductivity.

• Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence

of resistance.

• Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.

• Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.

• Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells;

measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

• Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

• Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving

charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.

• Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying

conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its

current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

• Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.

Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a

magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines;

Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.

• Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.

• Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

• Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual


• Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations

(qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.

• AC generator and transformer.

UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves

• Need for displacement current.

• Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

• Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including

elementary facts about their uses.

UNIT VI: Optics

• Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications

optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a

lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through

a prism.

• Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.

• Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and

hypermetropia) using lenses.

• Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

• Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using


• Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.

• Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained

interference of light.

• Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.

• Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of

plane polarized light and Polaroids.

UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

• Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle nature of light.

• Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should

be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nuclei

• Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.

• Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect;

binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.

UNIT IX: Electronic Devices

• Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V

characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and

Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor;

transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

Transistor as a switch.



UNIT I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry

• General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry.

• Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules.

• Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular

formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.

UNIT II: Structure of Atom

• Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s

relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules

for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of

atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

UNIT III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

• Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii,

ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence.

UNIT IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

• Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond,

valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d

orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative

idea only). Hydrogen bond.

UNITV: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids

• Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of

elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of

gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds

(elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature.

• Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

UNITVI : Thermodynamics

• First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H,

Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization,

sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution.

• Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and

non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.

• Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.

UNIT VII: Equilibrium

• Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium

constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and

weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts

(elementary idea)., buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative


UNIT VIII: Redox Reactions

• Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms

of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.

UNIT IX: Hydrogen

• Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and

chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure;

UNIT X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)

• Group I and group 2 elements:

• General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group,

diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in

chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses.

• Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds:

• Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium

and potassium.

• Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

UNIT XI: Some p-Block Elements

• General Introduction to p-Block Elements.

• Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states,

trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds:

borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies.

• General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states,

trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical

properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides.

• Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses.

UNIT XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques

• General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC

nomenclature of organic compounds.

• Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation.

• Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and

nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.

UNIT XIII: Hydrocarbons

• Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free

radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis.

• Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of

preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and

peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.

• Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical

reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water.

• Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties:

mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation;

directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity.

UNIT XIV: Environmental Chemistry

• Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric

pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-
pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of

environmental pollution.


UNIT I: Solid State

• Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and

crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of

unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects,

electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

UNIT II: Solutions

• Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid

solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression

of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular

mass. Van Hoff factor.

UNIT III: Electrochemistry

• Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with

concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and

Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and

EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion.

UNIT IV: Chemical Kinetics

• Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst;

order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for

zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation

energy, Arrhenious equation.

UNIT V: Surface Chemistry

• Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and

heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and

suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect,

Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.

UNIT VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

• Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence

and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

UNIT VII: p- Block Elements

• Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and

chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only);

Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3

and oxoacids (elementary idea only).

• Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and

chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic

forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial

process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).

• Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and

chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid,

interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

• Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical

properties, uses.

UNIT VIII: d and f Block Elements

• General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the

first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property,

magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

• Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its


• Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

UNIT IX: Coordination Compounds

• Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC

nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory

VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).

UNIT X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

• Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions.

Optical rotation.

• Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds


• Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

UNIT XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

• Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only);

identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to

methanol and ethanol.

• Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic

substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

• Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.

UNIT XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

• Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical

properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.

• Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

UNIT XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen

• Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses,

identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines.

• Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places.

• Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

UNIT XIV: Biomolecules

• Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration,

oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance.

• Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary

structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.

• Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure).

• Vitamins- Classification and function.

• Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA

UNIT XV: Polymers

• Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some

important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable


UNIT XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life

• Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics,

antacids, antihistamines.

• Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.

• Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

• Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA;

DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and

regulation-Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.

• Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative

anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism

of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection;

Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare

• Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia,

common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence,

drug and alcohol abuse.

• Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal


• Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and

as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications

• Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).

• Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically

modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT V: Ecology and environment

• Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism,

competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.

• Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy;

Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination,

oxygen release.

• Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of

Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves,

National parks and sanctuaries.

• Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid

waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion;

Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
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