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Old 17th July 2014, 10:49 AM
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Join Date: Apr 2013
Default Re: BDS I Year Syllabus for Biochemistry

Yeah sure, here I am sharing the BDS I Year Syllabus for Biochemistry which is approved by Dental Council of India (DCI)

1. CHEMISTRY OF BIOORGANIC MOLECULES
Carbohydrates: Definition, biological importance and classification. Monosaccharides - Isomerism, anomerism. Sugar derivatives, Disaccharides. Polysaccharides. Structures of starch and glycogen.
Lipids : Definition, biological importance and classification. Fats and fatty acids. Introduction to compound lipids. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. Cholesterol. Bile salts. Micelle. Bimolecular leaflet.
Proteins: Biological importance. Aminoacids: Classification. Introduction to peptides. Proteins : Simple and conjugated; globular and fibrous. Charge properties. Buffer action . Introduction to protein conformation . Denaturation.
Nucleic acids: Building units . Nucleotides. Outline structure of DNA and RNA.
High energy compounds: ATP , Phosphorylamidines, Thiolesters, Enol phosphates.

2. MACRONUTERIENTS AND DIGESTION
Energy needs: Basal metabolic rate. Dietary carbohydrates, fibres. Dietary lipids, essential fatty acids. Nitrogen balance. Essential amino acids. Protein quality and requirement (methods for evaluation of protein quality to be excluded). Protein calorie malnutrition. Balanced diet.
Enzymatic hydrolysis of dietary carbohydrates. Mechanism of uptake of monosaccharides. Digestion and absorption of triacylglycerols. Enzymatic hydrolysis of dietary proteins and uptake of amino acids.

3. MICRONUTRIENTS
Vitamins: Definition, classification, daily requirement, sources and deficiency symptoms. Brief account of water-soluble vitamins with biochemical functions. Vitamins A functions including visual process. Vitamin D and its role in calcium metabolism. Vitamin E. Vitamin K and gamma carboxylation. Introduction to antivitamins and hypervitaminosis.
Minerals :Classification, daily requirement. Calcium and phosphate: sources, uptake, excretion, function. Serum calcium regulation. Iron: sources, uptake and transport.
Heme and nonheme iron functions; deficiency. Iodine: Brief introduction to thyroxine synthesis. General functions of thyroxine. Fluoride: function, deficiency and excess. Indications of role of other minerals.

4. ENERGY METABOLISM
Overview: Outlines of glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation and citric acid cycle. Beta oxidation of fatty acids. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphyorylation. Ketone body formation and utilisation. Introduction to glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, fatty acid synthesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis. Gluconeogenesis. Lactate metabolism. Protein utilisation for energy. Glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids. Integration of metabolism.

5. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF METABOLISM

Importance of pentose phosphate pathway. Formation of glucuronic acid. Outlines of cholesterol synthesis and breakdown. Ammonia metabolism. Urea formation. Phosphocreatine formation. Transmethylation. Amines. Introduction to other functions of amino acids including one carbon transfer. Detoxication : Typical reactions. Examples of toxic compounds. Oxygen toxicity

6. BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Introduction to nucleotides; formation and degradation. DNA as genetic material. Introduction to replication and transcription. Forms and functions of RNA. Genetic code and mutation. Outline of translation process. Antimetabolites and antibiotics interfering in replication, transcription and translation. Introduction to cancer, viruses and oncogenes.

7. ENZYME AND METABOLIC REGULATION

Enzymes: Definition, classification, specificity and active site. Cofactors. Effect of pH, temperature and substrate concentration. Introduction to enzyme inhibitors, proenzymes and isoenzymes. Introduction to allosteric regulation, covalent modification and regulation by induction/repression. Overview of hormones. Introduction to second messengers, cyclic AMP, calcium ion, inositol
triphosphate. Mechanism of action of steroid hormones, epinephrine, glucagon and insulin in brief. Acid base regulation. Electrolyte balance.

8. STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS AND BLOOD PROTEINS
Connective tissue: Collagen and elastin. Glycosaminoglycans. Bone structure. Structure of membranes. Membrane associated processes in brief. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Introduction to cytoskeleton. Myofibril and muscle contraction in brief.
Haemoglobin: functions. Introduction to heme synthesis and degradation. Plasma proteins: classification and separation. Functions of albumin. A brief account of immunoglobulins. Plasma lipoproteins: Formation, function and turnover.

9. MEDICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
Regulation of blood glucose. Diabetes mellitus and related disorders. Evaluation of glycemic status. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: Biochemical evaluation. Hyperlipoproteinemias and atherosclerosis, Approaches to treatment. Jaundice: Classification and evaluation. Liver function tests: Plasma protein pattern, serum enzymes levels. Brief introduction to kidney function tests and gastric function tests. Acid base imbalance. Electrolyte imbalance: evaluation. Gout. Examples of
genetic disorders including lysosomal storage disorders, glycogen storage disorders, glucose 6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, hemoglobinopathies, inborn errors of amino acid metabolism and muscular dystrophy ( one or two examples with biochemical basis will be adequate). Serum enzymes in diagnosis
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